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According to the terms of the capitulation protocol of January 26, Portugal decreed that Jewish and Dutch settlers had three months to leave Brazil. Approximately Jewish families of Portuguese descent fled the Brazilian city of Recife, in the state of Pernambuco.

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By September, twenty-three of these refugees had established the first community of Jews in New Amsterdam. Known as Sephardim Jews of Spanish-Portuguese extractiontheirs was a complex saga.

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In DecemberKing Manuel I of Portugal decreed that all Jews leave Portugal by Octobercausing many to flee to Holland where a climate of acceptance prevailed. The community flourished until the Dutch eventually surrendered Pernambuco to the Portuguese and the Sephardim were again forced to flee. After being driven ashore in Jamaica by Spanish ships, twenty-three members of the community, along with a group of Dutch Calvinists, made their way to New Netherland New York —another colony run by the Dutch West India Company. The immigrants settled in the colony and soon formed Congregation Shearith Israel although the first synagogue was not built until Their community maintained traditions of Iberian origin and contributed richly to the growth of the colony.

By the time of the Revolutionary War, it is estimated that there were several hundred Portuguese from every small town of the Azores Islands, Madeira, and the Portuguese mainlandboth Christians and Jews, in the colonies. About fifteen percent of the enlisted personnel on board the first warship to fly the Stars and Stripes, the Bonhomme Richardcaptained by John Paul Jones, were Portuguese. While Hebrew was the language of prayer for the Congregation Shearith Israel popularly known as the Spanish and Portuguese SynagogueSephardic rites of worship were used during its first decades.

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Synagogue s were kept in Portuguese. By the middle of the s, however, both Portuguese and Spanish gave way to English. Amongst the nearly thirty million immigrants who poured into the U. Many settled on the Lower East Side of Manhattan. During that same period nearly two million Ashkenazim—Jews mainly of Russian, German, and Polish descent with different religious and cultural traditions—also arrived in the U. During the twentieth century both groups saw their old world languages and many of their folkways blend into the English-speaking American mainstream.

Nevertheless, when the congregation assembles in the Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue at 70th and Central Park West in New York it represents an unbroken line from the community that originated in Michigan entered the Union as the twenty-sixth state on January 26 The Ojibwa, along with the Ottawa, helped the French establish a thriving fur trade in the Great Lakes region.

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Great Britain acquired control of present-day Michigan in and administered it as a part of Canada untilwhen it was ceded to the United States under the provisions of the Treaty of Paris. Organized as part of the Northwest Territory inMichigan became a separate territory in With French Catholics as its first European settlers, Michigan maintained its strong Catholic identity in the early nineteenth century, attracting a large of Catholic immigrants.

The completion of the Erie Canal in prepared the way for a great influx of settlers between and the Civil War. Michigan made a ificant contribution in that conflict. Some 90, Michigan soldiers fought for the Union and 14, gave their lives. Lumbering, mining, and agriculture defined the Michigan economy in the nineteenth century.

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Afterthe automobile industry emerged as the dominant economic engine in the state. Today, approximately half the state population resides in the Detroit metropolitan area.

Today in History - January January Select date. Listen to this. The Capitulation Protocol According to the terms of the capitulation protocol of January 26, Portugal decreed that Jewish and Dutch settlers had three months to leave Brazil. General Maps. New York City Views. James Places.

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Gottscho-Schleisner, Inc. Gottscho-Schleisner Collection. Colchester, Connecticut.

Jack Delano, photographer, November Search on the term immigrants or lower east side in the collection The Life of a City: Early Films of New York, to to see images of individuals who emigrated to the U. Externalan Internet source connecting researchers of Jewish genealogy. For example, Haven contains images that reflect Sephardic life in colonial times. A timeline beginning in presents both a chronology and illustrations of world events, American, and American-Jewish events. The Legislative Petitions Digital Collection External presents petitions submitted to the Virginia legislature between and from more than eighty counties and cities.

The petitions, from Christian churches, concern such topics as the historic debate over the separation of church and state championed by James Madison and Thomas Jeffersonand the rights of dissenters such as Quakers and Baptists. The Yiddish theater developed as a uniquely American form in the Eastern European Jewish immigrant community in New York City during the early twentieth century. Also see the special presentation on Yiddish playscripts.

The online exhibition Religion and the Founding of the American Republicdemonstrates that many of the colonies were settled by men and women of deep religious convictions who had crossed the Atlantic Ocean to practice their faiths freely.

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Between the s and s the Congregation Shearith Israel assumed trusteeship of the Touro Synagogue. Clair Co. Drawn and published by A. Ruger; Chicago: Chicago Lithographing Co. Panoramic Maps. Bishop Frederic Baraga…holding his dictionary of the Otchipwe Language.

January 26

Marie, MI. Riverfront Panorama [Detroit, Michigan]. Peninsular Engraving Co. Panoramic Photographs. Later it was a success in vaudeville and later still, in its most famous rendition, sung by Judy Garland in the film Easter Parade MGM, He recorded for all the major record companies of the period—Victor, Columbia, and Edison.

Also included is a selected bibliography and curated list of external Web sites focusing on Michigan. Albert Ruger began his panoramic mapping career by sketching Michigan cities. Search on the keywords Ruger and Michigan in Panoramic Maps to see outstanding examples of his work such as Grand RapidsLansingSaginawand Kalamazoo Other mapmakers drew views of towns such as Detroit about and Marquette Search on Michigan in Railroad Maps, to to find nineteenth-century railroad maps.

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Also, read the essay The History of the Upper Midwest: an Overview for background on the northernmost tier of states in the Old Northwest. Henry R. Back to top.