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Schematic represents virus-induced host immune system response and viral processing within target cells. Proposed targets of select repurposed and investigational products are noted. Conflicts of interest comprise financial interests, activities, and relationships within the past 3 years including but not limited to employment, affiliation, grants or funding, consultancies, honoraria or payment, speaker's bureaus, stock ownership or options, expert testimony, royalties, donation of medical equipment, or patents planned, pending, or issued.

If you have no conflicts of interest, check "No potential conflicts of interest" in the box below.

Study of safety, tolerability & efficacy of ck in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (als)

The information will be posted with your response. Not all submitted comments are published. Please see our commenting policy for details. Importance The pandemic of coronavirus disease COVID caused Dallas the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 SARS-CoV-2 presents an unprecedented challenge to identify effective drugs for prevention and treatment. Given the rapid pace of scientific discovery and clinical data generated by the large of people rapidly infected by SARS-CoV-2, clinicians need accurate evidence regarding effective medical treatments women this infection.

Observations No proven effective therapies for this virus currently exist. The rapidly expanding knowledge regarding SARS-CoV-2 virology provides a ificant of potential drug targets. The most promising therapy is remdesivir. Oseltamivir has not been shown to have efficacy, and corticosteroids are currently not recommended. Current clinical evidence does not support stopping angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers in patients with COVID Conclusions and Relevance The COVID pandemic represents the greatest global public health crisis of this generation and, potentially, since the pandemic influenza outbreak of The speed and volume of clinical trials launched to investigate potential therapies for COVID highlight both the need and capability to produce high-quality evidence even in dating middle of a pandemic.

No therapies have been shown effective to date. This novel Betacoronavirus is similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus MERS-CoV ; based on its genetic proximity, it likely originated from bat-derived coronaviruses with spread via an unknown intermediate mammal host to humans. Currently, there is no evidence from randomized clinical trials RCTs that any potential therapy improves outcomes in patients with either suspected or confirmed COVID There are no clinical trial data supporting any prophylactic therapy.

More than active clinical treatment trials are underway.

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This narrative review summarizes current evidence regarding major proposed treatments, repurposed or experimental, for COVID and provides a summary of current clinical experience and treatment guidance for this novel epidemic coronavirus. A literature review was performed using PubMed to identify relevant English-language articles published through March 25, The search resulted in total articles.

Due to the lack of RCTs, the authors also included case reports, case series, and review articles.

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The authors independently reviewed the titles and abstracts for inclusion. Additional relevant articles were identified from the review of citations referenced. Active clinical trials were identified using the disease search term c oronavirus infection on ClinicalTrials. Following receptor binding, the virus particle uses host cell receptors and endosomes to enter cells. Structural proteins are synthesized leading to completion of assembly and release of viral particles. Promising drug targets include nonstructural proteins eg, 3-chymotrypsin-like protease, papain-like protease, RNA-dependent RNA polymerasewhich share homology with other novel coronaviruses nCoVs.

Additional drug targets include viral entry and immune regulation pathways. Of these trials, approximately trials including those not yet recruiting, recruiting, active, or completed included pharmacological therapy for the treatment of COVID in adult patients. Of these trials, 82 are interventional studies, with 29 placebo-controlled trials. Per description of the studies, there are 11 phase 4, 36 phase 3, 36 phase 2, and 4 phase 1 trials. Twenty-two trials were not categorized by phase or not applicable. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have a long-standing history in the prevention and treatment of malaria and the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus SLE and rheumatoid arthritis RA.

These agents also have immunomodulatory effects through attenuation of cytokine production and inhibition of autophagy and lysosomal activity in host cells.

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A news briefing from China reported chloroquine was successfully used to treat a series of more than COVID cases resulting in improved radiologic findings, enhanced viral clearance, and reduced disease progression. A recent open-label nonrandomized French study of 36 patients 20 in the hydroxychloroquine group and 16 in the control group reported improved virologic clearance with hydroxychloroquine, mg, by mouth every 8 hours compared with control patients receiving standard supportive care.

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Despite these promisingthis study had several major limitations: a small sample size only 20 in the intervention arm and only 6 receiving hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin ; the removal of 6 patients in the hydroxychloroquine group from analysis due to early cessation of treatment resulting from critical illness or intolerance of the medications; variable baseline viral lo between hydroxychloroquine monotherapy and combination therapy groups; and no clinical or safety outcomes reported.

These limitations coupled with concerns of additive cardiotoxicity with combination therapy do not support adoption of this regimen without additional studies. Another prospective study of 30 patients in China randomized patients to hydroxychloroquine, mg, daily for 5 days plus standard of care supportive care, interferon, and other antivirals or standard care alone in a fashion; there was no difference in virologic outcomes. At day 7, virologic clearance was similar, with Studies of chloroquine prophylaxis in health care workers NCT and hydroxychloroquine for postexposure prophylaxis after high-risk exposures NCT are planned or enrolling.

Hydroxychloroquine dosing recommendations for SLE generally are mg orally daily.

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Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are relatively well tolerated as demonstrated by extensive experience in patients with SLE and malaria. Clinical studies in SARS were associated with reduced mortality and intubation rates, but their retrospective, observational nature prevents definitive conclusions. Importantly, the median time from symptom onset to randomization was 13 days interquartile range [IQR],with no between-group difference. The primary outcome of time to clinical improvement defined by a 2-point improvement on a 7-category ordinal scale or hospital discharge was similar in both groups 16 days [IQR, ] vs 16 days [IQR, ]; hazard ratio [HR], 1.

Additionally, no ificant differences in viral clearance or day mortality rates Other antiretrovirals, including protease inhibitors and integrase strand transfer inhibitors, were identified by enzyme activity screening as having SARS-CoV-2 activity. However, its in vitro activity against SARS-CoV was limited and required high concentrations to inhibit viral replication, necessitating high-dose eg, 1. Patients received either intravenous or enteral administration in studies.

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A systematic review of the clinical experience with ribavirin for the treatment of SARS revealed inconclusive in 26 of the 30 studies reviewed, with 4 studies demonstrating possible harm due to adverse effects including hematologic and liver toxicity. Ribavirin causes severe dose-dependent hematologic toxicity. The inconclusive efficacy data with ribavirin for other nCoVs and its substantial toxicity suggest that it has limited value for treatment of COVID If used, combination therapy likely provides the best chance for clinical efficacy.

Oseltamivir, a neuraminidase inhibitor approved for the treatment of influenza, has no documented in vitro activity against SARS-CoV Similar to other agents, delayed treatment may limit effectiveness of these agents. Given conflicting in vitro and animal data and the absence of clinical trials, the use of interferons to treat SARS-CoV-2 cannot currently be recommended.

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Nitazoxanide, traditionally an antihelminthic agent, has broad antiviral activity and a relatively favorable safety profile. Camostat mesylate, an approved agent in Japan for the treatment of pancreatitis, prevents nCoV cell entry in vitro through inhibition of the host serine protease, TMPRSS2.

In contrast, angiotensin receptor blockers could theoretically provide clinical benefit via blockade of ACE2 receptors. Conflicting in vitro data exist to determine if these agents have a detrimental or protective effect in patients with COVID Pending further research, clinical societies and practice guidelines are recommending continuing therapy for patients already taking 1 of these agents.

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Quiz Ref ID Remdesivir, formally known as GS, is a monophosphate prodrug that undergoes metabolism to an active C-adenosine nucleoside triphosphate analogue. The agent was discovered amidst a screening process for antimicrobials with activity against RNA viruses, such as Coronaviridae and Flaviviridae. Research and development of the agent showed promise during the height of the Ebola virus outbreak due to its low EC 50 and host polymerase selectivity against the Ebola virus.

The safety and pharmacokinetics of remdesivir were evaluated in single- and multiple-dose phase 1 clinical trials. Remdesivir demonstrated linear pharmacokinetics within this dose range and an intracellular half-life of greater than 35 hours. Following multiple-dose administrations, reversible aspartate aminotransferase and alanine transaminase elevations occurred.

The current dose under investigation is a single mg loading dose, followed by mg daily infusion.

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The first clinical use of remdesivir was for the treatment of Ebola 64 ; however, successful case reports describing the use of remdesivir for COVID have been reported. Of particular importance, the National Institutes of Health is sponsoring an adaptive, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that will shed light on the effectiveness of remdesivir compared with supportive care NCT The active agent inhibits the RNA polymerase, halting viral replication.

Various dosing regimens have been proposed based on the type of infectious indication.

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The half-life is approximately 5 hours. Differences in clinical recovery at day 7 were observed in patients with moderate infections No ificant differences were observed in the severe or severe and moderate combined arms.

This review of proposed drugs is by necessity selective. A recent comprehensive review conducted by a division of the American Chemical Society analyzed scientific data related to therapeutic agents and vaccines in human coronaviruses sinceusing both published literature and patents worldwide. The same analysis identified more than patents for biologic agents with activity against coronaviruses including therapeutic antibodies, cytokines, RNA therapies, and vaccines.

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Another preprint analysis of SARS-CoV-2—human protein-protein interaction maps identified high-confidence protein-protein interactions, yielding 66 candidate druggable human proteins or host factors targeted by either existing FDA-approved or investigational drugs.

However, 3 adjunctive therapies that warrant special mention are corticosteroids, anticytokine or immunomodulatory agents, and immunoglobulin therapy. The rationale for the use of corticosteroids is to decrease the host inflammatory responses in the lungs, which may lead to acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome ARDS.

However, this benefit may be outweighed by adverse effects, including delayed viral clearance and increased risk of secondary infection. Although direct evidence for corticosteroids in COVID is limited, reviews of outcomes in other viral pneumonias are instructive.