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Native seek dating that loves Oklahoma

Some may simply be variant spellings for the same tribe. The Oklahoma Historical Society also has identified the "American Indian Nations" within the boundaries of their state.


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Press Room. Most Oklahomans identify with the Five Tribes, the Cheyenne, the Comanche, and other contemporary Native people of the state.

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Representing approximately 8 percent of Oklahoma's population, they are frequently discussed in historic s of the settling of Indian Territory. However, other less-well-known Native people inhabited Oklahoma for many thousands of years prior to European arrival on the southern plains in the mids. The Wichita and the Caddo can be traced back in prehistory at least two thousand years, and the Osage and Apachean-speaking people can perhaps be documented here prior to the arrival of Europeans.

Other groups with no historic tribal connections may have lived here or passed through beginning some 30, years ago.

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Prehistoric groups demonstrated remarkable adaptability to diverse settings and changing environmental conditions across Oklahoma. The archaeological record in some 17, sites offers evidence for the presence of prehistoric or early historic people over an incredible expanse of time from perhaps 30, years ago to as recently as the Dust Bowl era. For many years conventional wisdom held that "Clovis culture," existing here approximately 12, years ago, represented the hemisphere's initial immigrants. Scholars generally also accepted the idea that Clovis culture was the primary pulse of early settlement.

However, recent work with mitochondrial DNA as well as historical analysis of the evolution of Native American languages brought forth suppositions that peopling of North and South America extended back in time some 20, to 30, years ago and potentially reflected a of separate arrivals.

The pre-Clovis argument was bolstered in southern Chile by a fourteen-thousand-year-old settlement called Monte Verde.

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That it bore no resemblance to Clovis culture brought credibility to the pre-Clovis argument. During Oklahoma mids and s archaeologists reported numerous sites that strengthened the argument for early and multiple immigrations to the New World. Identifying these sites proved fairly difficult. Because Clovis native long been recognized as the first inhabitants, discerning exactly what would comprise a pre-Clovis site presented a ificant problem.

Another issue concerned the survival of these early arrivals. Obviously, Clovis culture reflected a successful immigration. What if some or dating of these attempts 10, to 15, years prior to Clovis were failures? Oklahoma's archaeological record has played a ificant role in helping answer at least some of the questions about Early Arrivals and pre-Clovis settlement.

In two locations credible evidence for pre-Clovis settlement exists: the eighteen-thousand-year-old Cooperton mammoth remains in Kiowa County, and the Burnham site in Woods County with a suite of relevant radiocarbon dates ranging from 28, to 32, years ago. Both locations hold material associated with extinct Ice Age animals. What the sites lack, however, is the clear continuity and unquestionable context found with Clovis culture sites.

Because the context is uncertain and the comparable sites are absent in Oklahoma and the surrounding region, archaeologists have difficulty characterizing these peoples' ways of life.

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The Early Arrivals were explorers at the edge of new frontiers, and their motivations, the nature of their society, and the full implications of their actions may never be fully comprehended. Debate about the peopling of the New World will undoubtedly carry forth, each school with its ardent supporters.

Resolution of the question may come in the near future as dating technology becomes more precise and methodology improves. The Oklahoma period, the time of Early Specialized Hunters, refers to our earliest well-documented inhabitants, known in the literature as the "Clovis and Folsom cultures. Both are viewed as specialized hunters, not so much for what they hunted but for manner in which they hunted.

For example, Clovis groups hunted mammoths as well as a variety of other game, whereas Folsom people specialized native hunting giant, now-extinct bison Bison antiquus. Stalking and killing mammoth or giant bison, large and potentially dangerous game, was not a capricious activity; it required complex knowledge and strategy far beyond that needed for hunting deer or other modern game with perhaps the exception of bison. Both societies used well-deed, chipped-stone tools. Their spear points, in particular, reflect special craftsmanship.

Oklahoma weapons, tools, and possibly ornaments were made of ivory, bone, and wood. Because hunting received emphasis, Dating and Folsom technology might not have been as expansive as that of dating peoples. The Early Specialized Hunters were nomadic groups who moved from one favorable location to another in search of game and perhaps edible plants.

In Folsom's case, movements were very likely dictated by bison herds' distribution and migration. Although native groups are generally thought to have lacked complex social or political organization, some individuals perhaps elders must have provided information necessary for decisions about when and where to relocate, who would participate in the hunt, and how to meet basic group needs. Evidence for Early Specialized Hunters is sparse and is widely distributed across Oklahoma.

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While artifacts of Clovis people occur throughout the state, Folsom materials are restricted to the southern plains or the western part of the state. Because a great deal of time has passed, few finds occur in a stable context; they typically appear on eroded surfaces or are washed into river beds.

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Two Folsom sites are present in Harper County in northwest Oklahoma. The Cooper and Waugh locales respectively represent a bison kill and a possible camp. After some fifty years of searching for sites of specialized hunters, archaeologists have discovered these four places and few other locations. Some 10, years ago the environment of eastern Oklahoma was much like that of today, and prehistoric peoples' ways of life differed considerably from those of their bison-hunting Folsom neighbors to the west.

Like Folsom and Clovis, much of the evidence of their presence comes from surface material.

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However, evidence from the Packard site in Mayes County, the Quince site in Atoka County, and Billy Ross site in Haskell County point to greater Oklahoma of local lithic stone resources, suggesting reduced mobility and a greater range of tools, including those for plant processing. Between approximately 9, and 4, years ago dating Native peoples termed Hunters and Collectors occupied Oklahoma. Hunters and Gatherers and Late Mobile Foragers are among the deations cataloguing these peoples in past literature. Following trends that began with Dalton culture, hunting of game continued, but emphasis began to shift toward collecting edible plants.

Although the Hunters and Collectors remained quite mobile, they were probably less so than native more specialized hunters that had lived at the end of the ice age. Existing in an environment much like that of our time, Hunters and Collectors moved their settlements from one seasonally available set of resources to another during the year.

Diversified resource use contributed to a more expansive inventory of weaponry and tools, especially tools related to plant procurement.

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Group size was probably quite fluid, the size of the group dictated by resource availability as well as by tasks at hand. However, this "mapping on" to seasonal availability of food resources also required greater group coordination and undoubtedly led to increasing concentration of decision-making authority in the hands of some individuals. This era also presents the first available evidence for concepts of an afterlife, represented by planned burial and special treatment of deceased group members. Ironically, the best evidence for people living during this time in Oklahoma's past also occurs during the period of greatest climatic hardship, the Altithermal.

Calf Creek people subsisted during the height of an extremely arid and seasonally warm time circa 5, years ago.

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Their presence across Oklahoma at this time is well documented despite harsh environmental conditions. They used large spear points, made with craftsmanship reminiscent of Folsom hunters, as well as a tool kit geared to hunting plains-adapted animals such as bison and antelope. Calf Creek people favored high places with broad vistas, but there was also considerable diversity in the placement of settlements. Some represent temporarily occupied camps and possible bison kill locations, and others are places where lithic raw material is cached.

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Some seem to have been rendezvous sites for the meeting of different bands of Calf Creek people. Still, all evidence points to a highly nomadic, loosely organized society. Although scholars have more information on the Hunters and Collectors, their camps and other activity sites remain scattered on the landscape.

This suggests that populations were relatively low and dispersed. Low s perhaps indicate small natural increases and a climate that encouraged people to seek more moderate conditions. When the period of hot, dry weather ended, people living in Oklahoma faced dramatic changes in context.

Populations increased substantially, perhaps through natural increase and also perhaps because favorable conditions encouraged migration into the region.

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Native peoples' settlements now became larger, more numerous, and more permanently built. During this time of some 4, to 2, years ago ificant changes occurred in the character of prehistoric societies, and they became Hunters, Gathers, and Traders recognized in past literature as Foragers or occupying the Archaic Period.

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As population increased, group mobility and access to resources became more restricted, and some of the first evidence for conflicts between societies appears. So does its alternative, exchange or trade.

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Greater concern with subsistence needs led to not only greater reliance on harvesting and perhaps cultivating plants but also to consistent storage of foods for periods of scarcity. Increased population, conflict, and plant cultivation necessitated more complex political and social leadership.

During this time religious beliefs became more visibly expressed in formal, sometimes ritual treatment of deceased leaders and other important people. These interrelated agents of change brought about diversification in technology as well. Weapons and tools for processing animals and plants remained in common use, but there was a notable increase in tools for grinding seeds and nuts.

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Complex carbohydrates may have increasingly formed the staple base of diet. A distinction present at this time was the presence of true ornaments, some made of bone and shell; some may have ified greater status of the wearer. Approximately five hundred sites offer evidence of these diverse groups.

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In the eastern part of Oklahoma societies that lived north of the Arkansas River distinctly differed from those that occupied the region south of it. Whether these groups are ethnically distinguishable is unknown.

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These people lived in what has been called "Black Midden Mounds" and appear to have depended heavily on riverine resources. These groups are less well defined in respect to their cultural composition. To the north of the Arkansas River existed what has been called the "Lawrence culture. The primary exception was the absence of the "Black Midden Mounds" and the intense settlement along the various streams and rivers in the northeast.

Central Oklahoma also had its own localized societies at this time, ones that were more dispersed and lived less intensively. They were more focused on plains-oriented plant and animal species. However, in most areas they were relatively indistinguishable from their more eastern neighbors. The situation in the west and in the Panhandle differed ificantly. Settlements are much more dispersed and would appear much more dependent on a protein-rich diet derived from bison hunting.