On February 1,the Ayatollah Khomeini returns to Iran in triumph after 15 years of exile. He was a Shiite—the branch of Islam practiced by a majority of Iranians—and soon devoted himself to the formal study of Shia Islam in the city of Qom. A devout cleric, he rose steadily in the Shiite hierarchy and attracted many disciples.
The new shah had close ties with the West, and in British and U. In fiery dispatches from his Faziye Seminary in Qom, Khomeini called for the overthrow of the shah and the establishment of an Islamic state. InMohammad Reza imprisoned him, which led to riots, and on November 4,expelled him from Iran.
Khomeini settled in An Najaf, a Shiite holy city across the border in Iraq, and sent home recordings of his sermons that continued to incite his student followers.
He took the risk
Breaking precedence with the Shiite tradition that discouraged clerical participation in government, he called for Shiite leaders to govern Iran. In the s, Mohammad Reza further enraged Islamic fundamentalists in Iran by holding an extravagant celebration of the 2,th anniversary of the pre-Islamic Persian monarchy and replaced the Islamic calendar with a Persian calendar. As discontent grew, the shah became more repressive, and support for Khomeini grew. In December, the army mutinied, and on January 16,the shah fled.
Khomeini arrived in Tehran in triumph on February 1,and was acclaimed as the leader of the Iranian Revolution. With religious fervor running high, he consolidated his authority and set out to transform Iran into a religious state. On November 4,the 15th anniversary of his exile, students stormed the U. The shah died in Egypt of cancer in July Under his rule, Iranian women were denied equal rights and required to wear a veil, Western culture was banned, and traditional Islamic law and its often-brutal punishments were reinstated.
In suppressing opposition, Khomeini proved as ruthless as the shah, and thousands of political dissidents were executed during his decade of rule. After initial advances, the Iraqi offense was repulsed. InIraq voluntarily withdrew and sought a peace agreement, but Khomeini renewed fighting.
Stalemates and the deaths of thousands of young Iranian conscripts in Iraq followed. InKhomeini finally agreed to a U. After the Ayatollah Khomeini died on June 3,more than two million anguished mourners attended his funeral.
The iranian hostage crisis
Ali Khamenei became Supreme Leader. Gradual democratization began in Iran in early the s, culminating in a free election in in which the moderate reformist Mohammed Khatami was elected president. ByNetflix had already fundamentally changed the way Americans consumed movies and television. The service offered unlimited DVD rentals—and, starting indirect streaming of many of its titles—for a flat monthly fee, a wildly popular model that almost single-handedly Tubman's appearance on stamps was emblematic both of the progress made in recognizing A singular event occurred during the halftime show of the Super Bowl on February 1, While performing a duet with Janet Jackson, Justin Timberlake briefly exposed one of her breasts in what was later described as a "wardrobe malfunction.
By the time the first of his three career-defining operas had its premiere, Giacomo Puccini was no longer living a life of impoverished artistic struggle.
His opera, Manon Lascaut, had made his name in the world of Italian opera, and, more important, it had earned him a The U. Supreme Court was established by Article Three of the U. Constitution, which took effect February 1, The first portion, or fascicle, of the Oxford English Dictionary OEDconsidered the most comprehensive and accurate dictionary of the English language, is published.
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On February 1,the lethal threat of the German U-boat submarine raises its head again, as Germany returns to the policy of unrestricted submarine warfare it had ly suspended in response to pressure from the United States and other neutral countries.
Richard M. Nixon announces his candidacy for the presidency.
"house of cards," netflix's first original series, starts streaming
Kennedy in the election. Two years after losing to Kennedy, Nixon ran for governor of California and lost in The Misfits, a flawed but moving meditation on the vanishing spirit of western independence, opens in theaters on February 1, The Misfits had all the right ingredients to become a truly great western.
The director, John Huston, was one of the most talented in Hollywood. Wilcox and his wife, Daeida, had moved to Southern California four years earlier from Topeka, Kansas, where Harvey had made his fortune in real estate. They bought On February 1,the space shuttle Columbia breaks up while entering the atmosphere over Texas, killing all seven crew members on board. On February 1,Texas becomes the seventh state to secede from the Union when a state convention votes to 8 in favor of the measure.
The Texans who voted to leave the Union did so over the objections of their governor, Sam Houston. On February 1, Japanese forces on Guadalcanal Island, defeated by Marines, start to withdraw after the Japanese emperor finally gives them permission.
A short history of the department of state
On July 6,the Japanese landed on Guadalcanal Island, part of the Solomon Islands chain, and began constructing an Live TV. This Day In History. History Vault. Art, Literature, and Film History.
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