Ethical and methodological issues in the study of dating violence among young Mexicans: A systematic review. Esmeralda Morales-Franco c. Violence in young hill is a serious problem that has drawn the attention of the international scientific community, which led to an increase in the of studies carried out on Mexico subject in Mexico.
For this reason, this dating review synthesizes the ethical and methodological aspects of studies on dating violence among Mexican youths published in the last two decades. In line with a Prisma protocol, a search was carried out in the Clarivate, Ebsco, Scielo and Scopus databases. Of the total initial references, a total of 12 articles that met the inclusion criteria were analysed through a purification process that was divided into four phases publication between andempirical articles, English or Spanish language, Mexican sample, age group between I7 and 35, and heterosexual couples.
Among the mainthe predominance of the quantitative approach, non-experimental and cross-sectional des, as well as the inclusion of non-probabilistic and non-representative samples were highlighted.
Likewise, numerous inconsistencies were found in ethical aspects of psychological research. The and the methodological implications are discussed, prioritizing the urgency for future studies to correct the mandatory ethical aspects in order to avoid bad practices or risks for the participants. De acordo a um protocolo Prisma, realizou-se uma busca nas bases de dados Clarivate, Ebsco, Scielo e Scopus. For adolescents, these relationships facilitate learning experiences that promote relational patterns, as well as relationship building and nonviolent relationships.
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However, in both stages of the life cycle, situations of dating violence can also occur with greater frequency and severity. Aggressive behavior is a basic and primary behavior in the activity of living beings that is present in the entire animal kingdom.
It is a multidimensional phenomenon in which a large of factors are involved. It is a behavior that tends to be intentional and harmful to the other person and can be active or passive, that is, by action or dating. Likewise, it is multifactorial in origin and highlights biological or hereditary facts, as well as the combination of the environment in which it develops. In this context, the relationship between aggression, aggressiveness and violence can hill confusing, therefore it is necessary to remember that violence is a behavior of gratuitous and cruel aggressiveness, while aggressiveness is an adaptive emotional behavior or response when activating biological mechanisms of defense against environmental hazards; however, violence is not justified by natural aggressiveness Arias, The study on this phenomenon is nothing new, with Kanin being one of the first authors addressing this Mexico.
However, it was Makepeacewith his research in the United States, who would regain interest in the study of this problem. Currently, DV is understood as any attempt to control or dominate a person, either physically, sexually, or psychologically, and generate some type of damage to them Rey-Anacona, In this way, it has been suggested that the younger the age at which sexual intercourse begins, the higher the rate of physical violence suffered or, on the other hand, that the older and longer the relationship, the higher the rate of physical violence suffered, mainly in women.
In the same order of ideas, the empirical evidence indicates that there are no marked differences Mexico sex in the prevalence of violence, mainly in that of a physical and psychological nature, although there is a difference in sexual nature, which seems to be carried out more frequently by men Rey-Anacona, In this sense, it should be noticed that there are numerous systematic reviews on DV in the international context that focus on different aspects, such as factors associated with DV Gracia-Leiva et al.
Consequently, the question that will guide this research is: what are the main characteristics of the studies carried out dating the years and on DV among young Mexican university students in terms of approach, de, scope, cut studysample, procedure, compliance with minimum ethical requirements, as hill as the instruments used to evaluate the DV? To answer this query, Urrutia and Bonfill suggest explicitly asking the main questions to be answered in relation to the participants, interventions, comparisons,and study de, but this review is directed only toward the participant analysis and research de, so it was not possible to fully implement this tool.
The subsequent intention is to synthesize the existing evidence regarding a health issue in order to generate new hypotheses, lines of research, as well as to propose more appropriate working methods for future research Manchado et al. Combinations were made between the selected keywords in English dating, violence, partner, university students, young see Figure 1 and Spanish violence, couples, young people, university students, dating see Figure 2 in order to arm search strings with the Boolean operator AND, and enter them into the selected databases.
Figure 1 English search string. Figure 2 Spanish search string. The search in the Clarivate, EBSCO, Scielo, and SCOPUS databases was performed between June and July using the advanced search function in order to enter the aforementioned search strings with the default option select a field applying the following filters: 1 publication date from to ; 2 full text; and 3 with open access.
The inclusion and exclusion criteria were as follows:.
Inclusion criteria. The recovery and filtering of articles was divided into four phases where articles were discarded according to the specified inclusion and exclusion criteria see Figure 3. Phase 1. In this phase, the articles were collected through the ly mentioned search strings. These articles were downloaded and their data was added to an Excel table with the following content for analysis: a article name, b author or authors, c year of publication, d country, e language, f journal, and g type of publication.
Phase 2. For this stage, a first exclusion filter was applied to the retrieved papers, namely papers that: a included a non-Mexican sample, b were not about DV, or c did not investigate young or university students.
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Likewise, those articles that were potentially relevant candidates for a partial review were included. Phase 3. Four filter questions were included in this phase to delimit the papers only to those that were included in the final review.
The filters were: 1 is the sample with a Mexican population? Finally, 4 is it an empirical article? The inclusion criterion was that it fulfilled the requirements in the four filter questions in order to be a candidate for a complete review in the next stage.
Phase 4. The final choice was made up of twelve articles, and the data obtained for their analysis was the following: keywords, focus, de, scope, cut, sample size, sex, selection, type, ageand instrument name, authorship, evaluation focus. This work deals with a systematic review and was a research study without risk because retrospective research papers were analyzed.
Therefore, the copyright of the corresponding articles was taken into when making the respective citations and references of the sources consulted. Four main characteristics were extracted from these materials: descriptive, methodological, sampling, and procedural. In the first phase, a total of articles were obtained with the four search chains, reaching a total of 12 articles for the final review, which went through a filtering process. Table 1 Descriptive characteristics of the reviewed research studies.
Table 1 shows a summary of the found through the systematic review of the included studies.
Regarding the country of publication, Mexico is found with five articles, followed by the United States with three. In terms of the language of publication, most were written in Spanish ten articleswith the remaining two written in English. Finally, regarding the keywords, the great diversity of keywords included in the studies on DV stands out, including: sexual coercion, university students, gender, Mexico, dating, violence, and DV.
Table 2 shows the focus and de characteristics of the articles. They are mostly quantitative, non-experimental, exploratory, descriptive, and cross-sectional studies. Table 2 Characteristics of the approach and de of the reviewed research studies. On the other hand, Table 3 illustrates the characteristics corresponding to the samples of each study, in which the selection was of a non-probabilistic type.
ificant variations were found in the size and distribution of male and female participants, with the of women being greater in most hill the studies. Table 3 Sample characteristics and procedure of the reviewed research studies. The procedure used in the study is also presented, which includes the ethical aspects centering around three main areas: 1 the type of collection whether it was personal or virtual ; most of the investigations collected data offline, while only three used online resources; 2 ethical aspects, in which in several investigations areas of opportunity were pointed out in this sense, the confidentiality of the data was ensured in all the studies analyzed, however, the anonymity and voluntary participation were conditions that were not mentioned by some authors, including elements like the approval of studies by an Ethics Committee or the allusion to a legal or ethical framework for research ; and 3 the choice and justification of the dating analyses, where most of the investigations indicated the data analysis plan, while a few justified the choice of the statistical analyses carried out.
Finally, Table 4 reveals the corresponding characteristics of the instruments of each article, in which it is necessary to point out the diversity of dimensions of violence that each Mexico evaluates, since they do not focus on a single type of violence, thus highlighting sexual coercion, DV, and types of violence, among others, as well as other independent variables of each study topic.
Table 4 Characteristics of the research instruments reviewed. In relation to the evaluation of the phenomenon, most of the instruments were ad hoc, that is, deed according to the characteristics and the objectives of the research.
The present systematic review aimed to answer the following question: what are the main characteristics Mexico the studies carried out between the years and on DV among young Mexican university students in terms of approach, de, scope, cut studysample, procedure, compliance with minimum hill requirements, as well as the instruments used to evaluate the DV? A discussion of the findings is presented below.
Regarding the approach, it should be noted that the majority of studies opted for a quantitative approach, which allows the evaluation of, among other issues, the frequency with which the phenomenon occurs, but not aspects such as the experience, meanings, or contexts of the violence. Likewise, the dating were non-experimental, cross-sectional, and with scopes, mostly exploratory or descriptive, which does not allow the extraction of causal relationships between the variables, as well as a knowledge of the dynamics of violence over time.
However, the samples were non representative and selected in a non-probabilistic manner, thus hindering the generalization of. However, regarding the procedure, most of the investigations still collected data off-line, however, some studies used online resources, which in other contexts is becoming general and would imply other ethical requirements. In this sense, the ethical aspects were crucial points in which in several investigations areas of opportunity were indicated.
Likewise, the confidentiality of the data was ensured in all the studies analyzed; however, the anonymity and voluntary participation of subjects were conditions that were not mentioned by the authors. In most investigations, hill of the study by an Mexico committee was absent.
In this same sense, it would be pertinent to explain the legal framework that is supporting the bioethical values and the principles that research on human beings demands Mazzanti, With reference to data analysis, in some studies parametric techniques were performed despite the size and the disproportion of the samples, as well as the expected violation of the assumption of normality in a variable such as violence; added to this, information on the reliability and the validity of the tests separately in men and women, or as a whole group, was not available in most of the articles, so it was decided not dating include these data in the table of analysis.
In this sense, caution would be required in the extraction of inferences from the aforementioned studies. On the other hand, most of the instruments were ad hoc, that is, deed according to the characteristics and the objectives of the research. These types of questionnaires or scales entail, among other things, questions about their reliability and validity, without forgetting that they are rarely used again, thus hindering the replication of findings and, therefore, the strengthening of psychometric resources around evaluation of the phenomenon.
However, some of the instruments implemented did not focus on evaluating the violence suffered or committed, but rather related to aspects such as the tactics, attitudes, perception, myths of rape and sexual coercion, or omit other types of violence by mainly focusing on sexual violence. An adjacent finding was the large of keywords included in the studies on DV, which denotes a wide variety of concepts associated with this phenomenon Jennings et al. In this regard, Rubio-Garay et al. Among the limitations of this research work, the selection of databases stands out, which, despite being of quality, ed only four; perhaps for this reason, a small of articles were obtained with Mexican samples.
Likewise, it is necessary to recognize the rigidity of the inclusion criteria, specifically when dealing with samples with Mexican university students.
However, this study presents some strengths such as, for example, the systematization of empirical research with Mexican samples from the last 20 years, which is focused on the methodological and instrumental aspects that allow a vision of the strengthening of the empirical evidence accumulated in Mexico, as well as its opportunity areas.
The importance of exploratory reviews is based on the panorama that they give to make theoretical or hill decisions, such as, for example, the development of more precise hypotheses based on the obtained, thus generating future questions and lines of research Manchado et al. In this sense, one of the most important implications of this work derives from the conceptual scope, because the dating of the keywords related to the DV, beyond logomachy, suggests the importance of a conceptual and terminological consensus that would allow the unification of theoretical criteria and, with Mexico, the ease of replication of .
Factor structure of the violence in adolescents’ dating relationships inventory for mexican youth (vadri-mx)
Among the methodological implications, there is a need for more research with mixed and qualitative approaches, the use of experimental des with longitudinal ranges, the inclusion of probabilistic and representative samples of the population, as well as the application of validated and reliable instruments adapted to Mexican samples.
This will facilitate greater knowledge of the phenomenon in order to identify, among other issues, the meaning of violence by young people, the modeling of victim and aggressor profiles, the evolution of the phenomenon individually and in pairs over time, explanatory factors through experimental des, as well as the necessary inclusion of couples in the study of a hill that is by nature dyadic. All this for the de of effective prevention and intervention actions based on empirical evidence. Regarding dating procedure, the advent of more online studies is expected, which will pose new methodological and, above all, ethical challenges, Mexico light of the obtained.
Added to this, it is necessary to remember the desirable provision of psychological support following the collaboration, if required, in order to preserve the integrity and the well-being of the participants.