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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. We conducted a qualitative study of male sex work in St. Male sex work involves a variety of exchanges including expensive vacations, negotiated monetary amounts, or simply access to food. Methods to find clients included the Internet, social venues e. Use of the Internet greatly facilitated male sex work in a variety of ways.

It was used by both individuals and agencies to find clients, and appeared to be increasing.

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Men often reported not being professionally connected to other male sex workers and limited disclosure about their work. Many were aware of the work-related risks to personal safety including violence and robbery by clients.

Perceived risk for HIV was mostly abstract, and several exceptions to women use with clients were noted. Alcohol australian was reported as moderate but consumed frequently in association with work. These data suggest that the most salient risks for male sex workers include professional isolation, threats to personal safety, limited perceived HIV risk, and sub-optimal levels of condom use.

Little is known about the likelihood of HIV transmission among male sex workers, another potentially important vulnerable population. The social, economic, and political changes that accompanied the transition in post-Soviet Russia were unprecedented, widespread, and accompanied by an increase in different forms of sex work Atlani et al. This proliferation was in part an adaptive response to loss of income and facilitated by changing social norms that increased the supply side for sex work Levina et al.

Despite this, sex work occurs largely in an environment of intolerance, stigma, and moral public attitudes. Legally, sex work men an administrative offence for which individuals can be fined. A growing body of research has been conducted on sex work in post-Soviet Russia. Studies conducted during — using qualitative and rapid assessment methods reported on the context of female sex work in St.

Petersburg Aral and St. Lawrence ; Aral et al. Lawrence These studies revealed both similarities and differences across the regions. In all three locations, female sex work was described as occurring in various ways including exclusive escort services, agency-based including use of the Internet, venues including hotels, massage parlours, and brothels, and public locations including street, railway and train stations, and truck stops. The hierarchical nature of female sex work was also described, with a more elite group of women working for escort services and in five-star hotels and the most economically vulnerable women working in public dating.

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Female sex work in St. Street-based female sex workers are often drug-involved. Brothels often operate in large apartment buildings. Virtual Internet brothels are another type of agency in which potential clients can go to specified websites and arrange the service online. In Moscow, female sex work was described as more organised with frequent involvement of pimps and assistants including drivers, assistant female pimps, guards, and recruiters.

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Female sex work in Moscow is also linked to internal and external migration of women and their clients. In all three areas, these studies revealed little about male sex work. In Moscow, it was noted that male sex work is similarly hierarchical and often club-based in well-known districts. In St. Petersburg, male sex work was reported to occur less frequently than female sex work and typically though agencies, Internet brothels, or public locations.

Another study also conducted over a decade ago similarly revealed the presence of male sex work in St. Male sex workers were more likely to be unemployed, less well-educated, and report not having enough money to buy condoms. Despite this literature documenting the existence of male sex work in Russia, limited research has followed. We are aware of only one study that specifically targeted this population.

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A pilot study of male sex workers was conducted in Moscow during —, in which 50 men were recruited through venue-based and snowball sampling methods Baral et al. of a structured survey were suggestive of a myriad of risks related to migration status, violence, substance use predominantly alcohol and sexual behaviour. Among MSM in St. It has also been observed that high frequencies of multiple sex partners, Petersburg anal intercourse, and transactional sex place them at substantial risk for HIV infection Baral et al.

Clearly, additional information about the vulnerable population of male sex workers is needed to better understand the broader context of these risks. As a group that emerged after the collapse of the Soviet Union, civil women has had limited interaction with MSM dating male sex workers.

Recent activities in Russia indicate little support for MSM. A new law in St. Individuals have already been fined for this administrative offence, raising concern about the law being used to prevent social actions to support MSM AFP ; Schwirtz Furthermore, the European Court of Human Rights found Russia in violation of permitting free assembly for denying activists the right to hold gay pride marches Human Rights Watch b.

This environment may increase their stigmatised and marginalised social status raising concern about violence that male sex workers may experience related to their work Scott Additionally, because the link between male sex work and HIV risk has long been recognised Aggletonit is troubling that Russia recently lost eligibility for financial support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria because of its high income status USDHHSand it remains unclear whether support from the federal government will be forthcoming.

The Russian federal HIV prevention plan is largely focused on promoting healthy lifestyles in the general population and allocates limited funds for prevention activities directed at the most at-risk populations USDHHS ; The Lancet Because of this situational context and the varied nature of male sex work Browne and Minichiello ; Minichiello et al.

We conducted a qualitative study about male sex work in St. Petersburg to describe the following: 1 characteristics of this population including methods and locations for meeting clients; 2 social vulnerabilities related to this work; 3 HIV risk perceptions, and 4 behaviours related to condom use and substance use. This collaborative project was a partnership between a non-governmental organisation NGO in St.

Australian with over a decade of experience conducting HIV outreach and prevention research for vulnerable populations and investigators from the USA. Data were collected in St. Men, Russia between February—June Petersburg is the western-most city of Russia and has approximately 4.

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First, individuals familiar with the target population through their professional work were recruited through known contacts of project staff, peer referrals, and direct outreach. Targeted sampling ensured recruitment of staff from service organisations e.

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Eligibility criteria included working for an organisation that had contact with the population of interest male sex workers and willingness to participate; engaging in sex work or being an MSM were not required for participation in this part of the sample.

Male sex workers were subsequently recruited through known contacts of project staff, peer referrals, and the Internet. The eligibility criteria for male sex workers included willingness to participate in a study seeking to recruit men who were engaged in sex work; this term was not further defined. Internet-based recruitment was conducted by sending e-mails to men advertising the sale of sex on a bulletin board website. Messages contained a brief description of the study.

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Men who were interested could then respond to set up the interview. This study was approved by institutional review boards at St. Petersburg State University and Yale University. All interviews were conducted in Russian. Separate interview guides were developed for professionals and male sex workers. Both guides contained questions about similar key topics related to male sex work including scope, types, social organisation, locations, personal safety, perceived risk for HIV, condom use, and alcohol and drug use.


Interviews with professionals also included questions about how best to recruit male sex workers for this study. Interviews were conducted by three members of the research team 2 Russian, 1 USaudio-recorded, and transcribed verbatim. Translation of quotes was done by both Russian and US investigators fluent in their non-native language. Thematic coding of transcripts was primarily descriptive and based on established methods Miles and Huberman, An initial codebook was developed with a priori deductive codes based on the research questions and applied to a subset of the interviews by three members of the research team.

Using an iterative process, the codebook was revised after discussions of transcripts and discrepancies, and it was subsequently applied to each interview by all three investigators. Code reports were generated containing narrative on emergent themes and discussed by members of the research team for synthesis and corroboration of. Eight professionals out of 11 attempted contacts and 12 male sex workers out of 18 attempted contacts participated in this study. The 20 participants are described in Table 1.

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The one participant who reported selling sex to women only was excluded from these analyses to permit a consistent focus on men who sell sex to other men. Each participant was ased a code for linking with quotes throughout the manuscript; names used are pseudonyms. Yes, sex is sold for money all the time. Sex for clothes, too.

It is not that it is exactly prostitution…It is a common practice. People meet up with each other, and someone buys someone clothes. And that is it. Anatoly, age 21, MSW1. Types of male sex work emerged according to locations for arranging and negotiating sex work, including recruitment of clients on the Internet, though organised agencies, at social venues, and in public spaces. Many websites were dating sites where men can either indicate that they are interested in finding sex partners who will pay them e. The use of message boards was also commonly reported where individuals post advertisements to which potential clients can respond electronically.